Abbreviations used in this dictionary (parts of speech, the classic 8)
~ approximately ~grade 8 means approximately grade 8
abbr abbreviation
acr acronym a sayable kind of abbreviation like NATO and radar, but not BBC, bfd, or D.C.
adj adjective modifies (describes or limits) noun and pronouns (and gerunds - the -ing words ‘he escaped by swimming rapidly’)
adv adverb how? when? where? why? of a verb (ran quickly), adjective (very green), or adverb (quite honestly). (slowly, quickly, ill, well, very, too), adj + ly = adv (e.g. rare, honest; rarely, honestly)
alt alternative alternative with equal distribution
ant antonym
arch archaic used to indicate ancient words still used
Aus Australian
bsl backslang `boy' becomes `yob'
cf compare L. confer
col colloquial informal conversation
conj conjunction connectors: and, or, but, neither, nor, for, when
contr contraction
crsl Cockney rsl.
csl Cockney slang
dated dated refers to a defunct term, though still pops up in books, movies, and in jokes, etc.
derog derogatory intentionally offensive
dial dialect
echoic echoic word sounds like what it means (yada yada, poo poo), but not necessarily onomatopoeic
esp especially
euph euphemism
excl exclamation
expr expression a string of elements analyzed as a unit, such as a sentence, or an idiom
GB Great Britain
gesture gesture
Hindi Hindi spoken mainly in N. Central India, or its dialect Hindustani, influenced by Persian and spoken also in Pakistan
idiom idiom fixed or frozen expression (‘kick the bucket’ = die). Idioms are not indicated in this dictionary, but are lumped into the more general ‘expr.’
imp imperative
inf informal
intj interjection greeting, response, or exclamation, which may be followed by !
Ir Irish
joc jocular indicates word used mostly for its humorous effect
L Latin
low low substandard usage
n noun word naming person, place, thing, quality, action, path, measurement in space or time, question, category, event, abstract concept, or no meaning
N Northern
num number
obs obsolete used to indicate a word no longer used
obsc obscene
offen offensive see derog. above
orig original(ly)
pl plural
pp past participle
pr pronuncation
prefix prefix
prep preposition What the rabbit does in relation to the table (the rabbit jumps on, between, because of, to, by, before, around, with, under, in back of, beneath, below, above, the table)
pron pronoun I, me, my, mine, myself; they, you, him, her, it, this, these; who, whose, whom; which, that, one, ones, one's; everybody, anyone
punc punctuation
qv which see L. quod vide, in cross reference
regional regional word used only in some region, not nationally
rsl rhyming slang
Scot Scottish
sl slang
sp spelling
suff suffix
symbol symbol ε| # $ % ¢ d p £ s in various combinations
syn synonym or, synonymous with
trad traditional
UK United Kingdom England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales
US United States in full, United States of America
usage usage indicates grammatical usage and usage frequency
usu usually
v verb word expressing action, being or occurrence
var variant prefixed to word markedly less common
vi verb intransitive does not take object, "The delegates met", "Shirley reads"
viz L videlicet namely, in other words
vt verb transitive requires object, "he met his fate", "Shirley reads poetry"
vulg vulgar

Last updated 31 December 1969 © Jeremy Smith 2014